• Draw the area to be paved using graph paper.
• A scale of 1:50 will allow direct use of the drawings on pages 142-143.
• Use dimensions that minimise cuts to paving.
• Paving surface must be at least 150mm below the damp course in any adjacent wall.
• Provide a gradient of 1:40 or steeper, towards adequate drainage.
• This is heavy work, requiring specific skills, tools and experience.
• Before starting, refer to suitable professional advice, publications or websites.
• The following advice assumes you have acquired a basic knowledge of what is required, including health and safety precautions.
• These depend on ground conditions and expected use.
• For light pedestrian use on solid, even ground, 40mm compacted sharp sand may be adequate.
• For less stable or wet ground, provide 100mm well compacted hardcore beneath the sand.
• For domestic driveways, increase the hardcore depth to 150mm. For Paviors follow the Pavior Laying Guide; for Flagstones follow the section headed Driveways.
• Mark out the area and dig out to the required total depth.
• Tap in wooden pegs to show the levels for the finished surface including the required gradients.
• Infill the appropriate foundations and remove the pegs before laying the paving.
• For Rio Paving, and all Paviors, follow Pavior Laying Guide.
• For all other paving (including Rio if preferred), follow Paving Flag Laying Guide.
Key points before you start
• Get professional advice if you are in any doubt, particularly with walls over 1.5m high and complex or stress carrying structures.
• Plan the wall and draw a design; this helps with calculating quantities and eases installation.
• Get the right tools; spade, concrete mixer, trowel, spirit level, club hammer, stringline and pointing tool.
A firm foundation is essential
• Walls need a concrete foundation three times wider than the thickness of the wall. Its depth should be at least 100mm with the base 300mm below ground level.
• For walls over 1m high the foundation base depth should be one third of the height of the wall above ground.
• Single skin walls 100mm thick should not be higher than 500mm and need 215mm square piers every 3m.
• Walls over 900mm high should be double skin construction, with the two coursed tied together with stainless steel tie irons and should have support pillars at least every 3m.
• All walls need provision for expansion and contraction about every 6m.
• Protect the top of the wall with copings and pier caps.
Bricklaying, Mortar & Joints
• Use normal bricklaying techniques including damp proof courses where appropriate.
• Mortar should be 1 part masonry cement to 4 parts soft bricklayers sand.
• Mix bricks/blocks from different packs to ensure a blend of shades. If using just one pack, select from the top down.
• With raised planters and retaining walls, ensure you incorporate weep holes for drainage.
• Raised pools require a waterproof liner and a wall design that will support the weight of water.
• Calculate the area of your wall in m2 (width x height). Make sure the wall is flat, dry, clean and free from dust before starting installation.
• Read the instructions for Sika 3N Primer and Sika EBT adhesive carefully prior to use. Ensure PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) is worn at all times when using these materials, including gloves and eye protection.
• Sika 3N Primer must be applied to the full receiving wall area and allowed to become touch dry prior to installation of the walling.
• Dry lay the walling in your chosen laying pattern before starting to adhere the panels to the wall.
• Start from a level baseline. A temporary batten fixed to the wall is recommended.
• Apply a thin coat of 3N Primer to the back of each walling panel and allow to become touch dry, ensuring no primer gets onto the face of the stone as it will stain.
• For application of the adhesive cut the nozzle to 60mm at a 300 angle to ensure that the correct bead size is achieved. Only apply the Sika EBT to one panel at a time.
• Start applying the bottom course of walling to the wall making sure it is level and supported.
• Push panels firmly into place. It may be necessary to tilt/raise the previously laid panel to insert the panel you are installing. Slight taps with a rubber mallet will ensure good adhesion.
• Both Exilis Sawn and Exilis Spliface Walling are installed with butt joints. Alternatively Exilis Sawn Walling can be installed with a 1-2mm joint for a more pronounced joint line.
• Panels that require cutting should be cut with a power cutter with an appropriate diamond blade ensuring all safety precautions are adhered to.
• A coping must be applied to the top of the wall to prevent water ingress. Fix using a 1:3 mix of cement to sand. For best practice, cut a drip groove into the underside of the coping near the leading edge to prevent water running down the face of the product.
• Stonemarket Exilis Walling is not recommended for use where the product is permanently in contact with water.
• Whilst Rio Walling can be built using normal mortar we recommend the use of M-Fix walling adhesive.
Vintage Stone Walling
• As Vintage Stone is a natural stone product, block height can vary. The ends of the blocks are dressed at an angle.
• Before commencing to build, blocks should be sorted to enable blocks of similar height to be laid in a uniform manner.
• Each block is faced / dressed on a minimum of one face and one end as a minimum.
• After the wall is built and the mortar has set firm, clean the blocks with a hose to reveal the full colour.
Dry or damp cement and wet concrete or mortar can cause irritation and burns to the eyes and skin. Suitable eye protection and PVC gloves should be worn. If contact with the eyes or skin occurs, irrigate or wash off with plenty of water. If irritation or burning persists, seek immediate medical attention.
Using high speed cutters on concrete and stone products produces dust and water suppression must be used. If dust is inhaled in excessive amounts over a long period this may cause longterm health problems. Suitable safety goggles and a dust mask should be worn.
Most of our products are abrasive and heavy, some are very heavy. Appropriate handling precautions include wearing protective gloves and footwear and obtaining mechanical assistance when moving items weighing over 20kg.
Safety Data Sheets
Available by calling 0345 302 0603.
• Keep pavior joints well filled with kiln dried sand.
• Pressure washers and chemical cleaners are not recommended on any of our products particularly reconstituted stone, natural limestone and Arctic Granite Midnight.
• Many common patio cleaners and brick acids are hydrochloric acid based and are not appropriate on most of our products including sandstone.
• To clean, wet thoroughly with lukewarm soapy water and use a stiff hard broom.
• Never use common salt to de-ice reconstituted stone or limestone. Alternative products are available, specially formulated for this purpose.
• Light coloured natural stone and concrete blocks, whilst structurally sound for use on driveways, may emphasize tyre marks and oil spills on the driveway and may require more maintenance to maintain appearance.
If a coating or sealant is used make sure paving is completely dry and free of efflorescence before applying. Responsibility for the performance of any coating rests with the user and the manufacturer of the coating. Always read the instructions carefully and first test a small area for colour and slip resistance, wet and dry. For further advice refer to our sales office.
WE DO NOT USUALLY RECOMMEND THE USE OF COATINGS AND SEALANTS.