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PAVING LAYING GUIDE

Preparation

Planning Suggestions

• Draw the area to be paved using graph paper.

• A scale of 1:50 will allow direct use of the drawings on pages 142-143.

• Use dimensions that minimise cuts to paving.

• Paving surface must be at least 150mm below the damp course in any adjacent wall.

• Provide a gradient of 1:40 or steeper, towards adequate drainage.

Paving Installation

• This is heavy work, requiring specific skills, tools and experience.

• Before starting, refer to suitable professional advice, publications or websites.

• The following advice assumes you have acquired a basic knowledge of what is required, including health and safety precautions.

 

Foundations

• These depend on ground conditions and expected use.

• For light pedestrian use on solid, even ground, 40mm compacted sharp sand may be adequate.

• For less stable or wet ground, provide 100mm well compacted hardcore beneath the sand.

• For domestic driveways, increase the hardcore depth to 150mm. For Paviors follow the Pavior Laying Guide; for Flagstones follow the section headed Driveways.

 

Groundworks

• Mark out the area and dig out to the required total depth.

• Tap in wooden pegs to show the levels for the finished surface including the required gradients.

• Infill the appropriate foundations and remove the pegs before laying the paving.

• For Rio Paving, and all Paviors, follow Pavior Laying Guide.

• For all other paving (including Rio if preferred), follow Paving Flag Laying Guide.

Paving Flag Laying Guide

Getting Ready

• Avoid rubbing and damage to Flags by carefully stacking them on timber battens with spacers between them.

• Select paving from different packs throughout the job, to blend colour shades.

 

Laying

• Make up a slightly wet mortar mix of 1 part cement to 5 parts building sand.

• A SBR or slurry backing should be pasted to the rear of the slab prior to laying.

• You may also consider using an appropriate plasticiser additive in the mix.

• Prepare a full bed of mortar ahead of each Flag, approximately 25mm thick, but allowing for the variation in thickness between Flags.

• Tap the Flag down to the required level, using a rubber mallet.

• If the Flag will not level with several gentle taps, lift it, adjust the level of the mortar bed and relay the Flag.

• Keep checking levels and gradient across a number of slabs. Stringlines can be helpful to define levels and lines within the laying pattern.

• Maintain the correct joint width by gently shuffling with a trowel. Small pieces of timber are useful as temporary spacers.

• If you need to cut Flags, a power tool with a suitable diamond tipped cutting disc will cut accurately through our products.

 

After Laying

• Do not walk on the paving for at least 24 hours.

• During wet or frosty weather, cover the paving for protection until mortar has cured.

• Then point as soon as possible.

 

Pointing

• For most paving flags Stonemarket Fast Point Jointing system can be used where a minimum 10mm joint and 22mm thick paving units are being utilised. For thicker flags 5mm and over the width can be reduced to 8mm.

• If there are known permeability issues drainage holes can be included to help water escape.

• Fast Point should not be used with Arctic

Specific Advice

(i) TRUSTONE, VINTAGE STONE, MARKETSTONE

Always lay larger face upwards.

 

Correct way up

Correct way up

 

 

Incorrect way up

Incorrect way up

 

(ii) NATURAL STONES

Coating the back of each Flag with SBR additive just before laying, will assist bonding.

(iii) ARCTIC GRANITE

Occasionally small micro-fissures can be apparent within Arctic Granite, midnight. These are not a sign of weakness and cause no issues technically to the stone. As Arctic Granite is a natural material. Varying degrees of quartz veining many be apparent in some pieces. We do not recommend the use of Fast Point with granite products due to staining.

(iv) ARCTIC GRANITE GLACIER

This product sometimes absorbs colour from Ordinary Portland Cement. We strongly recommend substituting White Cement in the mortar and adding a SBR or other bonding agent. Lay Arctic Granite with the textured slip resistant face upwards.

(v) ARCTIC GRANITE, AVANT-GARDE

Depending on site conditions, moisture transparency from the bed below is a natural characteristic of these stones that can result in darkening and patchiness on installed  product particularly on less well drained constructions.  This can be minimised, contact Stonemarket. Technical if further advice is required.

(vi) RIO PAVING

Not suitable for vehicles. Can be laid as per above guide or on a flexible bed, as per Pavior Laying Guide. Do not use a vibrator on top of the paving. Level off with a paver’s maul when laying on a flexible bed.

(vii) RIO SMOOTH

Silicon is used as spacers during transportation.  Small dark patches may occasionally result, be assured this is only a temporary weathering condition.

(viii) TIMBERSTONE

Post/Sleeper combination if being used as a retaining wall may need a retaining skin, and when being used as a retaining bed/planter always have a waterproof skin

(ix) TORVALE

It is possible that the natural lightening effect may be significantly retarded with an appropriate proprietary treatment. We recommend taking advice from specialists in maintenance products for natural stone.

(x) KNOTWOOD, GRAVITY, PALEO, FORO, LUCENT, FORTUNA

Our vitrified paving ranges have specific laying advice that can be requested as a datasheet by calling Stonemarket Technical Department on 0345 302 0603. Use of a  cementitious primer is required when installing vitrified paving.

(xi) NAMERA, LORENTO

To be laid on full mortar bed. To increase adhesion to the mortar bed and prevent separation, Ultra-Scape Pro-Primer slurry primer, or similar flexible bonding agent compound, should be applied to the back of the flag prior to installing onto the mortar bed.  When cutting Lorento use a power saw with a diamond blade. We recommend an external waterproof grout with these products.

 

Indoor Use

For indoor use, a coating is advised to reduce dusting and make cleaning easier.

Use Around Swimming Pools

Advice from Stonemarket should be sought about suitability for use of products around swimming pools.

Granite or Lorento

• Alternatively, use a damp mortar mix of 1 part cement to 4 parts building sand.

• Press firmly onto the joints to produce a dense, impervious surface that will drain water across the paving.

• If mortar gets onto the faces of the Flags, clean off immediately using a damp sponge frequently rinsed in clean water.

• Jointing sands and other pervious materials are not recommended except where paving is laid with minimal joints. Stonemarket will not accept responsibility for  contaminations/staining incurred from use of manufactured jointing compounds.

• Where minimal joints are recommended, these should be 2-5mm and an external grout should be considered.

• Where minimal joints are suggested with single size layouts or in courses, you could consider larger joints for ease of pointing and improved durability of the joint.

• Butt jointing is not recommended for any of our products.

Driveways

Our Pavior ranges are specifically designed for high performance in areas used by domestic vehicles. However, many of our customers prefer the look of flagstones. Trustone (Fieldland, Glenmoor and Fellstyle) and Vintage Stone Manor have been used successfully. Extra care with the foundations is essential. Lay the Flags directly onto a 100mm thick wet concrete bed (1:5 cement: sharp sand) on top of 150mm well compacted hardcore. To ensure a solid bond from flag to mortar bed, we advise the use of SBR paving primer.  Damage can be caused by heavy and four wheel drive vehicles, or by using power steering whilst stationery.

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